I have yellow spots on my apple tree leaves. Does anyone know what it could be?
Probably cedar apple rust. Look for CAR in the threads....lots of discussion.
Cedar apple rust is everywhere in Virginia. There are many thousands of naturalized eastern red cedars throughout the state, and it seems there are more every year. The eastern red cedar (juniperis virginiana) supplies the infectious spores that land on your apple trees and cause the yellow leaf spotting.
But leaf spotting is the least of the problems that CAR can cause. If your apple trees are fruiting, the spores also land on the calyx end of the little apples, leaving a greasy yellow/orange substance, and often distorting the young apple. Infected apples will never grow up to be decent fruit, and many will rot and fall off. Never leave a young apple that has the slightest hint of CAR on the tree. Thin it off, since it will never amount to anything. If your trees are bearing age, look at your little apples very carefully to see if any of them have it.
CAR spreads in the early spring with wind-blown rains, and the spores can travel for miles on the air. Depending on weather conditions, CAR can be so bad it will wipe out an apple crop in some years, and in others it is not so bad. But you will always have some of it. If only your leaves are affected and not the fruit, you have a mild infection.
You must spray against this disease in early spring, before the spores arrive. I use a fungicide called Ferbam, but this is hard to obtain and many others are using a systemic fungicide called Immunox. Buy a sprayer if you don't have one, some Immunox, and get out there and spray on the sunny calm days that occasionally show up in early spring.
Where in Virginia are you located? I am in the far northeast corner.
Don Yellman, Great Falls, VA
Thanks for the information... I have been using bonide fruit tree spray I guess its not working (smile) Jellyman, I am located in Richmond, VA.. Thanks again to All
I wish I had known what CAR meant when I planted my 2 new apple trees. I had seen it mentioned but never knew it meant Cedar Apple Rust. I live in southern Indiana, where cedars grow like weeds. Well over 50% of my wooded area grows in Eastern Red Cedar. My Golden Delicious already has yellow spots everywhere and I'm sure the Stayman's Winesap will soon follow. This is the first year in the ground, so I won't have fruit, can I still spray? Will this affect my sweet cherry tree?
Really, I'm not sure it matters that you're woods are surrounded by cedars or not. Here, there are very few cedars (none on my property, and none anywhere else that I know of), yet the spores blow in from somewhere. Without spraying, my trees are hit very hard.
You're approaching the end of the time where spraying for CAR is effective. I'll still do one more spray here in 6b, but that's it. If you don't have Immunox on hand, then it's going to be tough to obtain and spray in the time allotted. Really, the lesson here is to be ready for next year. I was in the same boat last year.
When I first joined this forum, people told me to stay away from the Bonide Fruit Tree spray, but for a while, I didn't understand why, or have an alternative. For CAR, the alternative is relatively easy. Obtain some Immunox. (Not Immunox Plus which contains an insecticide not rated for fruit). Some people have found it at Lows. Others of us have bought it online. If you search for "Immunox Glenn", youÂll see that IÂve posted a link of where to buy it quite a few times. Why is Bonide Fruit Tree bad? 1.) It says it is effective on things which it is not. For example, it says itÂs effective against CAR, when itÂs only active fungicide, Captan is not (effective against CAR) I wasted a lot of time (and money) attempting to fight CAR with this crappy product. 2.) It contains fungicides/insecticides that you do not need/want. 3.) In the event that you did want those fungicides/insecticides, they are in too low of a quantity to do any good anyway. A better plan is to learn your individual diseases and insects pressures and spray for them accordingly. People here can help with that.
I'd like to point out that there is another fungicide out there that is just as effective, just to let you know there is another choice. It is called RALLY (used to be called NOVA) by Dow Agroscience. I believe it has the same active ingredient as Immunox (myclobutinil).
Here is a link that might be useful: RALLY
Your Stayman may well have pretty good resistance to CAR. Many varieties do, and on a list compiled by the very experienced Virginia appleman, Tom Burford, "old strain" Stayman is included.
Myclobutanyl will probably absolutely control CAR with an application a bit before bloom (during the period from half-inch-green through tight cluster), one at petal fall and one 10 to 14 days later. If you add hort-oil to the first spray and captan and Imidan to the next 2 you may well control all of your destructive apple pests. On the other hand you might not- but it sure works here in Z6 southeastern NY.
Rally is for ag use. It is 40% active ingredient vs 1.55% for Immunox.
The ratio with Rally is ounce per 100 gallons and ounce per acre. The ratio with Immunox is ounce per gallon.
Mykl, you might want to double check that Rally label. It's supposed to be mixed at 1.5 to 2oz per 100 gal according to Cornell if it is the identical formula as Nova as I believe it is. I think it is more likely to be 5oz per acre (on average, depending on size of trees).
I meant a ratio of "ounce per", not exact mixing instructions of "1 ounce per".
Immunox is also not always "1 ounce per gallon" (my bottle is 1/2oz for apples, 1oz for roses and 2oz for grapes) but it is "per 1 gallon" not "per 100 gallons".
I think Rally is around 1 ounce per 100 gallons. The WSP are 5oz and I recall seeing 400-500 gallon tanks being mentioned. But it's not worth going back to the site to search for the label since I know the label was talking acres and hundreds of gallons.
Not exactly a good option for "help my apple tree has CAR", more suitable for "help my U-pick orchard has CAR".
I don't think a gardener is going to be able to mix .015-.02oz in their little 1 gallon sprayers.
Yup, no point in buying a lifetime supply, you're right about that. I premix a 5 0z bag with a gallon of distilled water and use a bit less than 2 cups to make a 25 gallon mix. Takes me about 3 days of spraying to use it up jumping from site to site. Seems to hold up well enough.
I use a systemic fungicide on stone fruits called Orbit, and measure it into my tank with an eyedropper, 1 1/2 cc's per gallon. Not for the faint of heart, perhaps, but it prevents brown rot on my stone fruits.
I'm amazed you spray yours by hand.
Curculio time by hand pump sounds like by the time you get done it's time to start again.
Don, it might be a little easier to measure Indar, being a powder- probably about a well rounded teaspoon would make 5 gallons. Add a good spreader-sticker and you're good to go.
Its not that complicated. I mix a little less than a quarter teaspoon Rally per gallon of water to spray my tenth of an acre orchard for CAR. Its not an exact science since the dry volume and weight don't exactly match up.. For my backpack sprayer, thats almost 3/4 teaspoon for 3 gallons. Easy enough.
I could only buy it in the $80 packet size but it should last me 15 years or more.
I sprayed three times this spring. No CAR. Last year all my trees had it.
If cedar apple rust is a problem in anyone's area and if they feel that spraying would be a hassle, I would suggest cedar apple rust resistant varieties. I live in SE Nebraska and cedar trees are spreading like weeds, overtaking some pastures. I have thirteen different varieties of apple trees and of them four show little or no sign of CAR. They are Liberty, Wolf River, Sundance, and an old tree behind the house that for all I know, might be grown from seed. I have a windbreak north and west of my house with some cedars in it, but as it was pointed out earlier, the spores travel for miles. I am aware of other varieties that are CAR resistant, but have no experience with them.
I many ways, I agree with you. About half of the trees I grow: the 2 Liberties, Enterprise, Williams Pride, and even my 2 Granny Smiths are all CAR resistant. If I have a friend who we know wonÂt taking growing apples seriously (i.e. wonÂt spray, wonÂt educate themselves, or possibly want to be organic), then I will certainly recommend a Disease Resistant variety. But, what IÂve found with the people here on the board is that they do take growing seriously, and donÂt want to limit themselves to the resistant varieties. Because theyÂre spraying for other things already, itÂs not hard for them to mix in some Immunox or Ferbam to take care of the problem. IMO, if I can get a variety which is just as good as a non DR variety, then I might as well plant the DR variety. But some here lately have suggested that some of the more popular DR varieties arenÂt as tasty. Personally, I really like the Liberty flavor, but my taste experience is limited. With others here lately, LibertyÂs flavor has been questionsed: Some really like it, and some really dislike it. Williams Pride still has a very good rep in that department, but its harvest window is incredibly short.
Good to see a kindred spirit though!
Glen, I feel bad for criticizing your beautiful child. Liberty is a great apple. It may be of limited use being a poor storage apple and lacking the backdoor acidity that makes a good cooker- it can't be called a "complex" apple. But lots of people love the apple and I have a hunch that with a little more heat than I get here I'd like it more as well. I wish all the orchards I manage had at least one Liberty just so I could be sure at least one apple would have a heavy crop most every year.
No need to feel bad. On the contrary, you opinion (which was shared by a couple other posters) gives me a more balanced, and probably accurate, view of Liberty. Perhaps weÂll get a couple cool summers, and IÂll wonder what the heck I ever saw in it!
In addition to all the normal variables that affect an apple, (location, climate, soil, weather, etc), I think this is a good example of when we evaluate a particular apple (i.e. I like it/ I hate it), we see that not everyoneÂs criteria is the same: A) A commercial growerÂs #1 criteria might simply be the nameÂ any name that isnÂt recognized by the public might not sell well. B) Perhaps a moderately-apple-educated grower like found on this forum might have flavor to be their #1 criteria. They know how to care for apples, and they want the best possible product. C) Perhaps a home-grower might have low maintenance as their #1 criteria. After all, anything that they grow themselves will taste much better than anything found in the stores, and really, theyÂre too busy with work and taking the kids to soccer practice to worry about their apple tree. I think IÂm somewhere between B & C. Perhaps youÂre somewhere between A & B?
Anyhow, in the future, I really look forward to trying some of these really exceptional flavored ones that people keep talking about!
Thanks as always for all your advice (even when it isn't what I necessarily want to hear! :-) ),
Glen, actually I'm a commercial home grower with clients that are mostly in the B category, with the desire for quality and the ability to pay me to do the schlepping.
If they aren't all that picky to begin with, I try to turn them into fruit snobs or rather, fruit connesseurs (wish this system had spellcheck).
I am a commercial grower of fruit trees but I grow mostly trees whose fruit I personally love. This means I'm a little lean on the Mac-Cortlandt types of apples in my nursery. I crave the denser flesh types, sweet or tart.
Personally, IÂm not a fan of the sweeter apples and prefer the tart ones. Around here, in the tart arena, the orchards have mostly Macs, Courts, and even Liberty, and those are the only types I can compare to. (I admitted my experience was limited!) Possibly the AshmedÂs Kernel that I planted this year would fit into your dense flesh category? Any it is even CAR resistant so you know IÂm happy to plant it! It was a leap of faith, because IÂve never tasted it before. (And the guy who runs the local orchard had never heard of it). Since your close by, do you have other tart dense flesh recommendations that I might want to graft on? Maybe I can be a connoisseur too some day! Thanks,
Yes, Ashmead's is the quintesential, dense, tart with some sugar background, high brix type of apple I love. And best of all, it's real ugly. If you love it I'll recommend some similar types that store longer. In the commercial realm, Pink Lady is a dense flesh apple and one that stores forever, or as close as that as you can get from an apple. You probably have enough season to make it work as it is the last to ripen here and could probably go longer.
When I first came to NY, Macoun was my favorite apple and although it is a Mac type, I still consider it very good. I was originally hoping that Liberty would be like it but actually Williams Pride is more similar, though not as good as Macoun in my opinion. I think Macoun is a parent of both.
IF my notes are correct Macoun descends from McIntosh and Jersey Black, and Liberty from Macoun and a product of the Purdue disease resistance program. McIntosh I understand to be a child of Fameuse and Detroit Red. I don't have any notes regarding Williams Pride.
We (and especially my wife) love Macoun here. She loves McIntosh and I won't eat them unless they are just right. We both find Liberty to be excellent if you hurry, and I will claim to have made a good pie with Liberty.
I've grafted more Macoun as well as Fameuse to my Liberty. The Stayman's Winesap is bearing for the first time this year. Now I've added Rubinette, and have Supreme, Carousel, Sweet Sixteen, Haralson, Rhode Island Greening, State Fair, Fuji, Gala, Prairie Spy, Macoun, Yellow Delicious, and, of course, the Liberty setting fruit. Monark, Karmijn de Sonnaville, Pristine, Pixie Crunch, Holiday, and Wealthy were grafted this year or last, and so are waiting in the wings. Say what you like about Liberty, it does seem a willing and able host.
Good Night All!
I am eagerly awaiting AshmeadÂs ugliness, though I wonder if IÂll be able to convince others to get on board! I had considered pink lady, but I can just barely get Granny SmithÂs to ripen here, and PL ripens later than that. Therefore, I didnÂt want to risk a whole tree on it. But, I do believe IÂll graft one on. Our local orchard does have Macouns, and supposedly (according to their sheet anyway), they ripen at the same time as Liberty (Sept 15-30th). For the last 2 years, IÂve favored L over M, but IÂll give em another taste this year IÂm sure. What do you expect from a guy who fresh-eats cranberries, wild grapes, rhubarb, currents, and doesnÂt even mind the cheap wine if he has to. ThereÂs just no accounting for taste.
Here is what jon clements has to say about liberty- some interesting stuff.
Here is a link that might be useful: mr liberty
This is a very old thread but it seems that this Apple Cedar Rust probably effects young, newly planted trees that are trying to establish roots. I have one each of 7' 'Wal*Mart Red Delicious and Ozark. I also have 2 plums, 2 cherries, and 1 peach all trying to establish roots and from 3' - 7' tall and planted within the last month.
All are doing fine except the Ozark and although it is leafed out excellently and has good shape it is the only tree that has caught this Cedar Apple Rust.
Well there is one Holly Hock that has lower leaves that look to be affected on the property.
We've had 2 heavy soaking rains every week since May I'd say so humidity plays a role.
Oddly, a the newly planted Red Delicious within 20' of it is unaffected. I also checked the 9 apples (all getting close to 20 year old) at my mom's and none are affected although very rarely new growth in two or three spots were killed by fire blight.
There is something that gets some, not all of my mom's cherries with small brownish or yellowish 'spores' covering the cherry after they get ripe. Don't know what that is but if you get the cherry ripe in time they don't have those 'spore' things all over the cherry so we don't spray. She wouldn't even if we didn't get a single cherry anyway.