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Is This HVX?

Posted by squirejohn 4 (My Page) on
Wed, Sep 5, 12 at 10:17

It's pretty obvious the leaf in the center of the photo has something going on. I don't know what it is but if it's HVX then it's probably wide-spread throughout the garden as I've had this montana Aureomarginata since 2001. This is the only leaf of the three divisions of this hosta that exhibited this leaf pattern.

Photobucket

Photobucket

My Wide Brim was recently diagnosed with HVX, and if this is also HVX I won't destroy the infected hostas but wait until all the vegetation for all the hostas has died for the season before I clean up the bed. I also won't be dividing hostas, buying new ones, or cutting scapes. In other words I ain't gonna mess with them. I'll fertilize, water, and mulch with compost but that's it.


Follow-Up Postings:

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RE: Is This HVX?

It doesn't look like HVX to me. It doesn't have vein bleeding or tissue collapse.

I would caution that if you did have a case of HVX, waiting until dormancy would not eliminate the virus. If this were true then hostas would be annuals. The roots of an infected hosta are, of course , alive and just as certainly infected and capable of spreading the virus......if infected.

My recommendation, if HVX were determined by test, would be to kill the hosta and the HVX with glyphosate and greatly reduce the possibility of spreading the infection.

Jon

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

I had a Diamond Tiara that looked similar to that. Chris said it was some kind of virus, but not HVX. I threw it away, pot and all. Your's is not so easy to dispose of.

If I were concerned about HVX, I would either test it or have it tested. It ends up costing about $35.00 for 5 test strips, freight and all. The disadvantage of this is if it's not HVX, you still don't know what the problem is.

I sent one of mine to the Texas A&M plant disease diagnostic lab. It cost $35.00, too. The diagnosis was anthracnose, which I never heard of previously. It's treatable. They also tested for HVX, CMV, ArMV, TSWV and ELISA based testing for Phytophthora (I have no idea what those are, except HVX.). They told me what kind of spray to use and how often to use it. Your state probably has a similar service. (Anthracnose looks like brown spots. Photobucket is down, so I can't post more than one photo.)

It's worth considering since hosta are a good portion of your gardens.

This is the Diamond Tiara.


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RE: Is This HVX?

bkay,

Good advice. Antracnose, if this is the problem is treated with fungus control (Ortho Garden Disease Control, or equivalent).

Anything with a V in it is a virus. C Cucumber Virus, T Tobacco...any virus is terminal and some are more dangerous than HVX as they can be transmitted by insects (thrips) or nematodes. HVX is transmitable only by direct exchange of sap.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

i am still mystified.. why you guys keep recommending test strips .. when a new clean plant.. can be had for a buck or two more than the cost of the strip ...

this is not some rare expensive hosta ... isnt it about $10 ...

just throw it out.. and get another.. i mean really.. so you spend 5 to 7$ on a test.. and then go spend the 10 on a new plant.. if in fact the hvx test.. will diagnose one of the other viruses ... [of which i think it might be .. not hvx]

just get rid of it ...

HOWEVER.. is it really ONLY ONE LEAF.. on that whole clump???? .. on the grass side.. could there have been any other chemical insult to that leaf.. like lawn spray ... to suggest that a plant has a systemic virus.. IN ONE LEAF.. seems weird ...

and if that is one leaf.. i might just grab that leaf.. tug it out.. out of sight.. out of mind ... and watch the plant next year ... if it reappears.. get rid of it .. and if it does NOT ... chalk it up to weirdness ...

ken


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RE: Is This HVX?

Ken, the concern is that it will or has infected the whole garden. It's not that the one plant makes that much difference. It's the planting hole, the ajacent plant, etc.

My excuse for spending $35.00 for the anthracnose diagnosis is that I'm curious. I just wanted to know. I knew that something was wrong, but had no idea what. Everyone is happy with Blue Angel, but mine has been a problem since shortly after I bought it.

I bought the HVX test strips and the plant from Lowe's because Rob threw such a fit about me saying it had HVX. However, I would buy test strips to test one of my mature plants. If a suspect hosta was in the ground, I would want to know if I had a contaminated spot, so I would test.

It makes perfect sense to me. It might not make sense if I had 5 acres and 1600 hosta, however.

bkay


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RE: Is This HVX?

This summer when I suspected HVX in a few hostas - Gold Standard which derived from several bare roots acquire 5 or 6 years ago - I used the test strips. Eight plants were infected and two others tested negative.

Ken raised the point of why bother ... just pitch them and replace. Two reasons ... one perhaps trite and the other perhaps something which should be routine.

First these were mature plants and replacements will take at least three years to grow ... I am impatient where maybe I should not be! The tests saved two mature plants worth far more to me than the few dollars new small plants cost.

Second and more importantly, the positive tests have led me to use a new safer regime. When I work in the garden now after any digging remotely close to an area of previous infection, I immediately wash my tools clean and thoroughly wipe with bleach ... maybe I am overdoing it but in the long run cleaner tools and greater care may help minimize other infectious agents as well. Without the tests I would likely have continued my ways which could easily transmit disease. To me it wasnt about money but about being a better grower and learning from this problem situation.


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RE: Is This HVX?

Ken,

The type of disease makes a difference. If it is HVX it can be contained by killing the plant. If it is nematodes it is quite a different story. If it is another virus killing the plant first may spread the disease by chasing the thrips or other disease spreading insects to other plants or forcing nematodes from a diseased plant to another healthy plant.

If it fungus than it can be treated and neighboring plants should be treated as well. It may not be just one plant in jeopardy. It is not just one plant that is a consideration.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

It's likely not HVX but another virus like Cucumber Mosaic. But the only way you will know for sure which virus it is is to send a sample of the plant to a University plant pathogen lab. That will cost you about $50.

It could be a virus that uses dagger nematodes as a vector for the virus, but the damage you see to the leaf is not caused by foliar nems. Here's what I did with a similar plant. I dug it up with a good amount of soil and trashed it. I poured several gallons of boiling water down the hole to kill any possible nems, and left it vacant for the remainder of this growing season (I filled it with wood chips). I'll put fresh soil in the hole this fall and replant it with a new Hosta.

Steve


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RE: Is This HVX?

It is usually not a small young plant which would need to be replaced. In my case it were well established plants which you can not easily buy for $15. Plus there is the hole and hosta real estate is scarce, and heavy lifting is involved. I tested two plants, one H. 'Honeybells' had HVX, and got sprayed with Roundup, later into garbage; the other plant had nothing and recovered from whatever it was. There I have 3 more strips in my refrigerator for next spring.
Bernd


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RE: Is This HVX?

you guys are trying valiantly.. but you arent convincing me .... and trust me.. do whatever makes you happy in your garden..

but what is the point of an HVX test.. to rule to cucumber virus.. nematodes.. this vector.. that vector ... it seems you are taking a very specific test.. and ruling out a dictionary of problems..

and then.. on the other hand.. claiming they are old big plants.. all i can say is so what.. ITS GOT BIG PROBLEMS.. get rid of it ...

BTW.. dad gave me an old shovel.. i sprayed it international orange.. when i want to dig up a problem plant.. i use that shovel.. and then leave it on the blacktop for a month or two ....

listen.. i am just playing devils advocate.. to make you all think about it.. i dont plan on denigrating anyone for whatever they decide.. i wont be coming back to the OP and saying.. na na boo boo .. lol

you have 3 option.. ignore it.. do something about it.. or talk about it ... i dont care which you pick ...

ken


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RE: Is This HVX?

Ken, when you throw out a plant which looks somewhat like having a virus, then you created a spot you may no longer plant another hosta in for several years. You can not simply buy another hosta and plant it there, because that spot is gone. Therefore, having certainty via a test with an Agdia strip is a necessity.

So, since I do not have 5 acres as you have, but less than 0.5 acres with all spots taken, then testing for HVX is needed, or I would waste my space.

In this forum, HVX has been declared even from small suspect areas on single leaves, and the advice was to throw out the plant and buy a new one. Never I read about where to put the new plant, probably into a pot, but some people do not use pots.
Bernd


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RE: Is This HVX?

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the majority of hosta problems are Anthracnose, nematodes and HVX and other viruses. Not necessarily in that order.

Anthracnose can be diagonosed with brown spots / streaks and cancor like spots. This can be treated with a fungicide.

Nematodes can be detected by tearing a leaf and placing it in a clear glass dish for 10 minutes to 1/2 hours. Backlighting the dish will show nematodes, if they are there. The treatment is to either remove the infected plant and all others within 6 feet...or wait until February and dig up the roots and place them in 130 degree tap water in the kitchen sink for 10 minutes and pot the plant up and replant in August. Nematodes do not live in soil so no problem putting anything back in the same spot. Another alterantive is to do a lot of spraying to kill them, but it will take a long time and a lot of diligence as spraying will not kill the eggs. Or some people just live with them. I think I would go with the continuous spraying first and "cooking" if that wasn't effective. "Living with them" is not appealing to me.

Failing the observations / tests for Anthracnose and nematodes you probably have a virus. Spray with insecticide to prevent spread of non-HVX viruses which can be transmitted by insects. Viruses are all terminal and the best thing to do next is paint the hosta leaves with glyphosate to kill the tissue (hosta) which is necessary for virus survival. I would wait until Spring to remove the hosta as it may take a month or more for the roots to die completely. Instinctively digging the infected plant out while it is alive is the very worst approach. It can immediately spread te virus or any remenants of the root or crown in the soil can and will spread the disease to any plant that has a cut or torn leaf or root.

In the Spring, dig out the remains of the dead, virus sterile roots and plant more hostas or something else.

It is a little complicated, but I think this is simpler and surely less expensive than even a simple HVX test whenever something looks unusual. It also gives an indication of what category of problem you are facing and gives treatment alternatives that, in many cases, are safer and more effective.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

Jon,

With respect to foliar nematodes not living in soil, you might be interested in the following abstarct from a scientific study:

We studied the pathogenicity and overwintering survival of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, infecting Hosta spp. Nematodes applied to either lower or upper sides of noninjured and injured hosta leaves were able to infect and produce typical symptoms on nine cultivars. Leaves of only four cultivars (Borschi, Fragrant Blue, Patomic Pride, and Olive Bailey Langdon) showed no symptoms of nematode infection. The nematodes overwintered as juveniles and adults in soil, dry leaves, and dormant buds, but not in roots. Nematode winter survival was higher in dormant buds and soil from the polyhouse than in an open home garden. Of the nematodes found in the dormant buds, 35% to 79% were located between the first two outside layers of the buds. The nematodes tolerated 8 hr exposure to 40�C and −80�C in leaf tissues. Relative humidity influenced nematode migration from soil to leaves. The presence of nematodes only on the outer surface of foliage (leaves and petioles) confirmed the migration of A. fragariae on the surface of the plants. Of the total number of nematodes found on the foliage, 25% to 46% and 66% to 77% were alive at 90% and 100% relative humidity, respectively, suggesting that high moisture is required for the survival and upward movement of nematodes. We conclude that A. fragariae can overwinter in soil, infected dry leaves, and dormant buds and migrate in films of water on the outer surface of the plant during spring to leaves to initiate infection.

Now, back to the OP's question. Yes, I think we all agree this is likely some form of virus. If you take a look at the various pictures in the HL on the subject there are a few pictures in there that are rather similar to what you're seeing here, not the typical ink-bleed or collapsing tissue we normally think of as HVX symptoms. Look at the 'Sagae' picture on page 3 -top left- of the HL HVX pages.
Pieter

Here is a link that might be useful: Foliar nematode survival study


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RE: Is This HVX?

Pieter, thank you for the data on nematodes. I had no idea some varieties were unaffected by them. That is interesting. I think the migration with rain or overhead watering is well known.

Yes, we all agree it looks some sort of virus and it does not look like HVX.

I have obviously spun off into a mini thesis on how to address Anthracnose, nematodes and all viruses. I apologize if I have wandered off too far from the OP's question with a step by step diagram of "What would I do?".

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

Well at this point I think I'll take ken's advise and do nothing but closely monitor the situation and see what developes next year. The general consensus seems to be it looks like some kind of virus infection. If it is a virus I don't know how it was contracted as it's from a division of a mA I purchased 11 years ago. As ken said it's only one leaf out of three hostas (over 100 leaves) and maybe it's just an anomaly - I hope!

I do have a Wide Brim that was diagnosed by Chris as having HVX and have since taken steps to get rid of it. (My NOID post)


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RE: Is This HVX?

Squirejohn,

Only HVX is transmiited only with sap. Since it has shown no signs of HVX for 11 years and doesn't now, I would say it does not have HVX.

Other viruses such as Tobacco Virus can be transmitted by insects or nematodes and spread to other hostas. This is most likely how it was infected. You obviously can do what you want. It will die; the question is how many more might be infected. In my opinion leaving it alone is a risky decision if you have a collection you want to protect.

I would spray it with insecticide to limit the chance of insect transmission. Kill it with glyphosate (RoundUp) and dig up the dead remains in Spring...and replant something...or not.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

I have a beautiful plantagenia that had, for 3 years straight, exhibited signs of a virus. Dr. Lockhart said it was a virus, but not HVX or Tobacco Rattle or Cucumber, but at that late time of the year, he was unable to actually identify it.

The next year, the virus showed up again. This year, no signs of it. I'm not suggesting that it doesn't have the virus anymore, rather that sometimes virus symptoms are suppressed. But again, that does not mean the virus is gone.

I have no good reason why I've not removed it. But I have not done any digging within 5 feet of the plant. I will likely use RoundUp to kill this plant this year and wait several weeks to ensure the roots are dead too (of course, I won't know for sure). Nonethelesss, I'll be scrubbing any tools with a bleach solution.

In the meantime, I have huge blooms to enjoy until I start to kill the plant. However, part of what has kept me from taking action here is that I do not know how this particular virus transmits. Nonetheless, I need to take action soon. In the event that it's transmitted via some sort of insect, I'm not doing myself any favor by keeping it. Especially since it's a cheap hosta.

Plantagenia Virus


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RE: Is This HVX?

Shucks Melissa, I can understand that. We love our hosta. We kill them because it's necessary. We don't want our healthy plants infected, but that doesn't mean we like to off one we've nurtured for years. Our gardens are pleasant places for most of us. . . even if no one else stepped a foot in our garden it would be special to us. I feel for ya kid. A common plant she may be to others but you raised her and in that sense she isn't common.

Looking of the brighter side. . what an excuse to go on a wild hosta shopping spree. . .lol
Someone ought to start a post of excuses for a hosta shopping spree. . lol


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RE: Is This HVX?

Okay, I'm convinced that the hosta should be destroyed, especially since it can be replaced with no visible impact. Here's the plan:
Kill the mature (20+ eyes) hosta with RoundUp this Fall and remove soil quite a bit larger than the root system occupied.
In the Spring make a large planting bag out of Tex-R fabric and fill with new soil, compost etc.
Transplant a large division of the original mA and voila there should be little or no visual change.


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RE: Is This HVX?

All viruses are terminal. It really doesn't matter which it is once you have established it is a virus.

I see no need for expensive tests, especially HVX tests which only tell you that the plant has or has not been infected with HVX. It leaves the question of virus infection unanswered or even if it is a virus. A $50 lab test will give you an answer; but the answer should be determinable (word?) with observation and, in the case of nematodes inexpensive testing.

"Anthracnose can be diagonosed with brown spots / streaks and cancor like spots. This can be treated with a fungicide.

Nematodes can be detected by tearing a leaf and placing it in a clear glass dish for 10 minutes to 1/2 hours. Backlighting the dish will show nematodes, if they are there. The treatment is to either remove the infected plant and all others within 6 feet...or wait until February and dig up the roots and place them in 130 degree tap water in the kitchen sink for 10 minutes and pot the plant up and replant in August. Nematodes do not live in soil so no problem putting anything back in the same spot. Another alterantive is to do a lot of spraying to kill them, but it will take a long time and a lot of diligence as spraying will not kill the eggs. Or some people just live with them. I think I would go with the continuous spraying first and "cooking" if that wasn't effective. "Living with them" is not appealing to me.

Failing the observations / tests for Anthracnose and nematodes you probably have a virus. Spray (the entire area) with insecticide to prevent spread of non-HVX viruses which can be transmitted by insects. Viruses are all terminal and the best thing to do next is paint the hosta leaves with glyphosate to kill the tissue (hosta) which is necessary for virus survival. I would wait until Spring to remove the hosta as it may take a month or more for the roots to die completely. Instinctively digging the infected plant out while it is alive is the very worst approach. It can immediately spread the virus or any remenants of the root or crown in the soil can and will spread the disease to any plant that has a cut or torn leaf or root.

In the Spring, dig out the remains of the dead, virus sterile roots and plant more hostas or something else."

Jon



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RE: Is This HVX?

Having read through all of the responses I am glad to see squirejohn has accepted kens advice. None of the opinions are invalid. None are more "right" than the others. We share a hobby with a passion, for hostas and everything about them!

In spite of the odds agaist my developing an improved hosta, as a hobbyist I am thrilled at the idea of propogating hostas from seed. I have one in my garden that is open pollenated and will never be notable, though it has emerged two springs variegated, but by summers end is almost solid green. I take ownership in spite of my only claim is that I am keeping its parents.

Technically I feel john's hosta is virus infected from something other than HVX. As for what to do about it, that is up to the owner. Some of us love the challenge of learning more first hand about viruses, and have a "need to know" interest. Bless us all, dear Lord, for we are "hostaholics"! :-> It sometimes seems that in todays deeply troubled time it is one of the few things where we can share peace, not war.

Les


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RE: Is This HVX?

Who knows where I will have HVX next year, if any.

This year a large yellow sport, probably 'Choo Choo Train' had it, lokked like the first picture on this thread. I sprayed it with Roundup, let the leaves dry up, then removed everything including the soil, put it into the garbage, then lined the hole with several layers of newspaper, put new bought soil in it and planted a 'Tokudama Aureonebulosa' in that spot.
Then a H.'Honeybells' in front of a fence had it close to the first one, checked it with an HVX strip, sprayed it with R., after a while dug it out and planted a bunch of Astilbes in it, which I had from redoing a spot.

Last year I removed a plant which looked spotty like the one I tested positive for HVX. In that spot with new soil I planted a H. 'Krossa Regal' and it shows no sign of any virus now.

Next year? I hope for the very best, I am careful what I am doing, have 3 Agdia strips left for just in case. Bernd


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RE: Is This HVX?

Bernd,

Please keep us updated on how those Hosta do in the newspaper covered holes.

Steve


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RE: Is This HVX?

Bernd,

I think you have done a good job. If you do test for HVX and it is positive, I might "Round-it Up" and wait until Fall to dig it up as Steve has related correctly; spread is slowed down dramatically after flowering. Although slowing it down is not the object, stopping it is.

I wish there was some study on how long it takes to kill a hosta to the roots (worst case; Sieboldiana family, probably) so one could be reasonably assured there is no live tissue and no chance of transmission.

I don't know how effective newspaper might be as it readily soaks up water and, I assume, diluted sap when it rains or the spot is watered. It may be somewhta of a barrier and help and it certainly will not hurt.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

I have a H.'St.Paul' (see the picture) which last year developed these blotches. I then ripped off these leaves. This year all leaves are perfect, and I have no plans to do anything terrible to that plant. That might have been the heat, the plant gets several hours midday sun. Possibly I did not water it sufficiently.
Then I believe that all these bad viruses are around all the time anyway, I see all kind of insects moving around, mice underground, heavy rain spreading viruses. So I do not react when I see 3 leaves or a single leaf having a problem, but give it another chance.

Jon, (with my 'Choo Choo Train' looking hosta) I noticed with all leaves dry after Roundup after around 2 months, that roots were still looking fresh, so I dug the whole plant and all its soil out plus some. That plant had all its leaves blotchy.
Bernd


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RE: Is This HVX?

Bernd, You touched on something here that I wondered about. I have sprayed some big rooted weeds with roundup and they come back. I usually have to dig them out. I was wondering about how long it takes the hosta root to die?


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RE: Is This HVX?

I wonder whether all virus are lethal? Maybe the ones that have been identified are but how many unknowns are there that affect hostas? Melissa has a hosta that has been infected with an unknown virus for three years and during thr third year there was no sign of the virus. Are there unknown relatively benign virus vs lethal ones? Sorta like comparing the common cold with West Nile Virus.
With a common easily replaceable hosta (my situation) the prudent thing to do would be to destroy it. However with a prime specimen maybe "wait and see" would be a better option especially if it can't be identified.


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RE: Is This HVX?

Squirejohn,

HVX is not lethal, so you are correct in supposing that not all viruses will kill a plant. I believe what Jon meant by his statement is that plants do not have immune systems, thus they have no way of fighting against a virus. HVX will disfigure your plant significantly, but it won't kill it. Essentially that makes the plant worthless as a landscape plant and thus it usually is dug up and discarded.

Steve


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RE: Is This HVX?

Sidney, old fashioned Round Up (glyphosate) is a grass killer, not a broadleaf weed killer. The manufacturer has now named several weed killers, "Round Up". You will have better luck with a broadleaf weed killer than a glyphosate if you're trying to kill anything except grassy weeds.

bkay


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RE: Is This HVX?

bkay,

Glyphosate (Round up) is a non specific herbicide. That is to say, it kills everything it touches. Grass, broadleaf, small shrubs, it doesn't matter it'll kill it. Some plants have a great deal of energy stored in their roots and thus are hard to kill, but it you give it enough applications of glyphosate or a strong enough concentration of it, it will kill pretty much anything.

Steve


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RE: Is This HVX?

Steve,

Correct me if I'm wrong, but HVX can linger for a decade or so but eventually it is fatal....I think.

In any event I don't know why anyone would want to keep it or any other virus around.

As to the Glyphosate and it's lethality, I use a generic brand and there are always at least 2 concentrations listed and there are even RoundUp and generics for poison ivy and brush. I would recommend putting on some gloves and painting the stronger concentration on both sides of the leaves. If there is no sign of dying in a couple of weeks then a re-application would be advised. I suppose it might also be tempting to even use the concentrate full strength as we are only talking about one plant. Of course, this is unlawful and I would never suggest doing such a thing.

I have heard of people using glyphosate on the cambium layer of the trunk of a felled tree which they claim will kill off the roots of the tree and hasten rot. A hosta is tough, but it is not a tree.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

Actually, Phil (hostafreak) has one he's had for years. If I remember correctly, it hasn't spread or seemed to cause any damage to nearby plants.

bkay


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RE: Is This HVX?

bkay,

HVX can only be spread by sap. If the infected hosta and adjoining hosta are nut cut or scarped there is no way to transmit HVX. Actually both have to be cut or scraped in order for the virus to be transmitted through the sap bleeding from one to the other. If left alone the HVX will not spread. The hosta, however will always be infected and a potential source of spread from pruning, digging or anything that will abrade or cut the surface.

Unlike HVX other viruses can be transmitted by nematodes or insects. Leaving these in place risks continued and easy spread of infection. It is a fact that they are far more easily transmitted.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

Jon, again, nematodes DO survive in soil....

Nematodes do not live in soil so no problem putting anything back in the same spot. Another alterantive is to do a lot of spraying to kill them, but it will take a long time and a lot of diligence as spraying will not kill the eggs. Or some people just live with them. I think I would go with the continuous spraying first and "cooking" if that wasn't effective. "Living with them" is not appealing to me.

I would NEVER plant ANYTHING in a spot where I've encountered nematodes until I have thoroughly doused the site and surrounding area with boiling water, and even then I'd still hold my breath. I dug up and tossed an infected 'Maui Buttercups' last year, enlarged the hole and filled it with boiling water. This spring I transplanted a 'Hanky Panky' beside where the MB had been dug up last year and it is now showing a nematode infection, obviously the original infestation covered a much larger area than I assumed. This particular raised planter will get emptied and the planter rebuilt over the winter, and most of the soil in there will get thrown out...

Pieter

Here is a link that might be useful: Foliar nematodes in soil


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RE: Is This HVX?

Pieter,

Reading the full test procedure shows exactly where the counts were taken for the nematodes. Each was taken from hosta plants leaves, roots and dead leaves. No test was done on simply soil as nematodes like every other living thing need something to eat in order to survive and nematodes do not eat soil.

I think the statement from the introduction that you quote is misleading. Reading the entire test and where the counts of overwintered nematodes was taken will back-up my statement. They somewhat carelessly refer to the tests that they document as being hosta plants or dead leaves as soil from the various locations, although they clearly indicate it is not just plain soil.

I do however agree that sterilizing with boiling water is a good idea as nematodes can of course migrate through wet earth or mulch of any sort.

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

Jon, not to beat this to death, but, read the following statement from the study:

Overwintering survival of nematodes was observed on 15 February 2003 and 20 February 2005 in dormant buds, roots, and soil collected from all three sites (treatments). Dry leaves were collected from plants grown in the home garden. Hi-liting and underlining mine.

Pieter


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RE: Is This HVX?

I learned in using strong chemicals to wear chemical gloves. NOT latex gloves. The very strong heavy gloves can avoid tears and leaks exposing your skin to harm.

I was sensitized to chemicals when I got poison ivy (did not recognize it), and then later spilled Chemprime in my gloves where I had a broken poison ivy blister. Since then, I am sensitive to all chemicals even bleach, and have to be very careful while using them.

To avoid becoming sensitized, please use good gloves and cover your skin adequately.


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RE: Is This HVX?

Pieter,

In an effort to beat a dead horse; I know that they said soil was tested, however, reading the test procedures shows clearly they did not test soil. The only tests were on dead and live leaves or roots and crowns. Could they have tested wet soil and found transient nematodes, surely. The facts are nematodes only travel through soil and do not live in soil alone. A similar example would be; you can find a lot of people swimming in the ocean but humans do not live in the ocean.

From the report you reference.

"Nematodes were extracted from leaves of Venessa "

"The first experiment was conducted in the laboratory using A. fragariae extracted from either R. solani culture or naturally infected hosta leaves."

"The second experiment was conducted based on the results obtained from the first in a greenhouse using nema-tode-infected hosta leaves as the source of inoculum. The laboratory test was conducted on three hosta cultivars, Great Expectations, Marginata, and Strip Tease (Table 1), whereas the greenhouse experiment was conducted on 20 additional hosta cultivars "

"the greenhouse experiment was conducted on 20 additional hosta cultivars (Table 1). For the laboratory trial, nematodes from R. solani and nematode- infected leaves of Venessa were used"

"Five thousand mixed stages of nematodes suspended in 0.5 ml water were used for inoculation. The treatments consisted of nematodes inoculated on: (i) lower sides of noninjured leaves, (ii) upper-sides of noninjured leaves, (iii) lower sides of mechanically injured leaves, or (iv) upper-sides of mechanically injured leaves. In all the treatments"

"In a shaded greenhouse, the pathogenicity of A. fragariae to 20 hosta cultivars was performed as described above except that it was conducted at 25�C � 2�C and nematode-infected leaves of Venessa were used as the source of inoculum."

"Dry leaves were collected from plants grown in the home garden. In 2003 and 2005, three arbitrarily selected dormant buds from a crown of each plant were collected and washed for 2 to 3 min in a 50-ml beaker containing 10 ml tap water to remove soil particles or nematodes (if any) from their outer surfaces;"

Jon


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RE: Is This HVX?

To assess the overwintering population of A. fragariae in soil, a knife was used to cut frozen soil into 2 � 2-cm-wide � 8�10-cm-deep samples, which were collected from three different spots in each pot from all three sites (soil in the polyhouse was partially frozen). A composite soil sample for each pot was prepared and then held at 4�C overnight to thaw. After thawing, soil was thoroughly mixed, all pieces of roots were removed, and nematodes were extracted from a 10-g subsample using the Baermann funnel technique....

Pieter


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