Return to the Hot Topics Forum | Post a Follow-Up

 o
the burning continents

Posted by pnbrown z6.5 MA (My Page) on
Tue, Jul 17, 12 at 7:10

We have about twenty years left of "business as usual", IOW, that period of post-peak fossil fuel extraction where we will have enough power to stave off the early effects of climate change via such dodges as artificial cooling, synthesized fertilizers to compensate for lost crop production, etc.

That game cannot be won, however. As effective fossil fuel supplies constantly decline climate change effects will be increasing, so the descent into disruption will accelerate geometrically. This year's warming effects are based on the effects of emissions from largely before 1960 or so. Try to imagine what it will be like when the planet is beginning to feel the onslaught of the effects of the emissions from peak petroleum where we bunt more fuels in 50 years than in all of human history.

One thing is already very clear: the majority of the interiors of the continents will be effectively uninhabitable fairly soon, certainly by 50 years, and more likely 30. They will be similar to the Australian Outback of today, or the middle-eastern arid regions. Only the well-adapted will remain there. The margins of the continents, already heavily-populated, will become far more so, very soon.

How to prepare for that?


Follow-Up Postings:

 o
RE: the burning continents

More wars to reduce the surplus population...


 o
RE: the burning continents

I guess hydroponics will be needed to grow food indoors, but we would need that on a massive scale to feed the amount of people we have.

Certainly we will need a lot of innovative and brain power and we should harness the "free" power of wind and sun.


 o
RE: the burning continents

I think we have to ruin the arctic first then scrape all the lichen & moss from the Scottish highlands for a new super synthetic, Burn the bogs of Ireland for real turf wars. My only hoped for escape from any of this will be a deeper senescence.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Esh, there have been excellent ideas floating about for quite some time now, with experts designing workable solutions for indoor food growth, etc... and practically begging humankind to put all the puzzle pieces together, take a realistic look at our problems, and work as a global team to update and salvage humanity and our planet, to utilize our resources in a sustainable, renewable fashion... but you know how it is... I don't think I have to say it again.


 o
RE: the burning continents

  • Posted by vgkg 7-Va Tidewater (My Page) on
    Tue, Jul 17, 12 at 9:09

# 99
finally into 2 digit territory...


 o
RE: the burning continents

The margins of the continents, already heavily-populated, will become far more so, very soon.

Unfortunately the margins of the continents will be having their own problems from the rising sea levels because of the melting of the ice caps which is currently underway.


 o
RE: the burning continents

O the irony, pnb, as you cited jodik on another thread for her pessimism about our future.....


 o
RE: the burning continents

  • Posted by batya Israel north 8-9-10 (My Page) on
    Tue, Jul 17, 12 at 11:54

Don't call my gardening and knitting hobbies. They are post-apocalyptic skill sets.
And yes, I worry a great deal about what my grandchildren will deal with. Call me crazy, but I actually worry about how they will find seeds, and water, and medicines. I've read large amounts of speculative fiction about this, with the best thinkers in the fields writing what many dismiss as science "fiction". It's not.


 o
RE: the burning continents

From the reading I've done it seems we are close to the point of no return and probably have already passed it. Unless something is done now we are only a few decades away from a way of life that trumps our worst nightmares. Even if we put everything we posses in trying to change what's coming, the time for reversing it is long gone. All we can do is try to minimize some of the effects. While we sit here bickering about politics and whom we dislike and why, Rome is burning.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Well, I don't think our weather is "normal" -- 103 here today, and that is our 4th day over 100 this year at least (might be the 5th). THAT is extremely weird. And, of course, it's very dry.

I absolutely think that this is "man-made" and I also absolutely think the point of no return has probably already passed.

I feel really sorry for anyone under 40. What a mess.


 o
RE: the burning continents

We topped out at 92 yesterday - almost unheard of here. Lake Superior is six weeks ahead of its normal warming schedule.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Hard to plan and adapt because we still don't know where this is all leading. What is the new norm? Are we there yet? So far, our local weather in the past few years has featured...either record, repeated, debilitating snowstorms or sunny, mild winters, or maybe just heavy rain--you pick. Last summer there was a hurricane/tropical storm and net rainfall of over 80 inches, now there is a 7 inch and growing deficit on normal rainfall (around 45 inches). Supposed to be a warmer and wetter world but not everyone will be sitting out the next rain dance. What do farmers plant? The recent year has featured a humid, Mediterranean - like climate (a sauna in L.A. Comes to mind), lots of humidity, almost no rain. (Grapes are drought tolerant but would hate the humidity.) But if it does rain, make make sure you have a boat, because here in NJ, we are due for one of our "once in a 100 years rainfall event", which seem to be happening much more regularly now.

Oh, here is a weather report from one of those living "in the bubble".

Here is a link that might be useful: Bubble weather


 o
RE: the burning continents

It's true, though... plenty of ideas exist to live a sustainable, renewable lifestyle as whole communities... but a good chunk of our global populations have been conditioned otherwise. It'll never happen... more's the pity. And people can chide me all they want for being a cynic... but just judging from many of the daily responses within this forum, we cannot, and will not, ever work as one team toward the same basic goal of human survival.

I, too, worry about how my grandchildren will survive, and what sort of world they'll inherit...


 o
RE: the burning continents

Quit extending lives to age 100 only to live out their last 30 in a nursing home.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Meh, the human race has always adapted to it's surroundings. Should energy sources, medicines, or land become scarce, we will adapt. Should climate or conditions change, we will adapt. That is what humans have always done.

There may be a brutal drop in the world population, but that is the NATURAL order of things. The inflated, artificial and unsustainable state in which we live now is the UNNATURAL.

Burn baby burn.


 o
RE: the burning continents

HG, I see that you are a fatalist.

WN, I cited Jodik for her constant harping on the "badness" of humanity, not pessimism. In any case, I didn't start this thread from a point of pessimism. I state what I think is likely to happen, and consider possible remedial action to cope.

JZ, regarding sealevel rise, I think that the emptying of the continental interiors will happen much in advance of significant disruption from that former problem. Later, yes, it will be a huge issue. It may turn out to be a perfect one-two punch that we cannot cope with.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Oh yay, another fossil fuel sky-is-falling post from who else, pnbrown.

"One thing is already very clear: the majority of the interiors of the continents will be effectively uninhabitable fairly soon"

That is ludicrous. There is no evidence that the interior of all continents will be uninhabitable due to warmth and drought. There may be localized changes, but this is certainly an opinion, and nothing more, and you play it off as fact. Many areas are becoming moister, not drier. Some areas will be moister and some drier as the climate changes. In addition, we all know that warmer air can hold more water vapor.

Moving from fossil fuels is a basic economic equation. When fossil fuels become so expensive that most people and companies no longer can afford to use it, demand for alternative sources will rise, andthose alternative sources will become more feasible.

And you absolutely started this thread from a pessimistic view point. I don't know what else you would call it?


 o
RE: the burning continents

I really need to step in IT here. Climate change and rising sea levels are going to greatly inconvenience maybe 10% of the world's population that already control much of the wealth and resources and so enjoy a relatively high standard of living and adaptive socio-political systems and infrastructures. Billions of people today are not doing very well under favorable climates and sea levels and live under systems of poor infrastructures and socio-economic and political controls already.

Billions of people are already migrating within countries and regions and from less well off to more affluent countries and regions. The world's major migration has been underway for a generation now and is unlikely to finish any time soon.

So please maintain the world's largest "defense" system and probably the largest security/intelligence system. The Pentagon, during Bush II's term, declared that this country's greatest security threat was climate change. (not the usual roster of bad guys and evil empires)


 o
RE: the burning continents

"Moving from fossil fuels"

You have no idea what that means, because it's meaningless.


 o
RE: the burning continents

  • Posted by bboy USDA 8 Sunset 5 WA (My Page) on
    Tue, Jul 17, 12 at 21:16

Sea levels are now expected to go up significantly much sooner than was thought a short time ago. Coastal southern California is expected to be under water, like, tomorrow, dude, as far as it goes. Where are all those people going to end up next? How are we going to get by with no Hollywood? Shudder!!


 o
RE: the burning continents

Hey, Hollywood butts up against the Hollywood Hills and over the other side of those hills is North Hollywood. And not to fret, other than some mail drops and porn shops, most of Hollywood entertainment is located in the Valley or other remote locations far removed from the tourist trade.


 o
RE: the burning continents

"the sky is falling...."

Now you're beginning to see what this is about. The worst case projections are increasingly likely.


 o
RE: the burning continents

We definitely are at the point of no return and I fear the lives of my grandkids won't be nearly as good as ours. We already are eight days past the usual 90+ degree days that we normally have the entire summer and there are two months to go. . Since the third week in June, every day but one was over 90 and that day it was 89. Tonight on the 11 oClock news, the temp was 90!!It reached 99 in the afternoon. Last year we had much rain from tropical storms which put us ahead and this year the opposite. I think Europe is getting the rain and cool weather. This drought which is covering much of the nation harkens back to the dust bowl days of the 30's. Those poor farmers. At least I can water my two vegetable gardens with a hose.


 o
RE: the burning continents

One hundred days per year over 100 is a catchy little tipping point, is my guess. If we look at regions around the world that experience close to or more than 100 days per year that high temp anywhere close to 100 degrees, what do we find?

Very low population. Such regions are expanding at a rapid pace in the continental interiors, consequently people are going to have to move.


 o
RE: the burning continents

I'm stocking up on corn flakes and flour.

That's about all I can do about it.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Consider hoarding less perishable versions such as grain in the kernel.

More to the point though, is that those of us in the regions that will be less severely impacted by warming - in the short term, at least - need to adjust to the idea of living with much higher population densities. I really dislike that idea, unless it were on less resource consumptive terms. If more people means more vehicles and roads then I have to think again about buying in NS. However, by the time there are climate 'refugees' in NA building more infrastructure to today's status will likely be impossible. There may well be more people than now and less vehicles.


 o
RE: the burning continents

I hope to NOT have any grandchildren, and tell my son not to have any children on my account. A huge part of the problem is too many freakin' people and we need to stop reproducing without restraint. But that decision is up to him.

Cant' speak for other countries, but I agree that "America fiddles while the Earth burns" - we are ridiculously deluded and wasteful about precious natural resources!

We may wise up, but it won't be until really bad things have happened, and it will probably be too little, too late.


 o
RE: the burning continents

marshall is right. Migration on an unheard of scale...ie refugees in their millons.
Coastal and non coastal lowlying flooding a catastrophie.
It will be scary the first time one of the "biggies" (eg New York London ) suffers major floods.
Food shortages..major starvation and wars fought for water resources(you need more water than we will have for major hydroponics)
How to prepare? Good question.no answers here unfortunately.


 o
RE: the burning continents

  • Posted by bboy USDA 8 Sunset 5 WA (My Page) on
    Wed, Jul 18, 12 at 23:03

These days there seems to be MANY MORE impatient maniacs barreling around in heavy cars, burning up the gas, than even a few years ago.

Especially black cars. The red sports car of yesterday is the black SUV of today.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Perhaps a national network of underground aqueducts with desalinization/purification plants everywhere to provide drinking water as well as irrigation. They can be run along the highways and railroads. Water can be sent to places that need it and taken from places that have too much. Unfortunately it will require cooperation between all the states which is most likely impossible.


 o
RE: the burning continents8

I ,live in Victoria Australia. Due to our recnrt dreadful 14 year drought we will soon have a mega Giant desalination plant operating (which we all will have to pay for in taxes for decades to come)

The ironic thing about desalination is that it uses mega amounts of fossil fuels to run it.!!


 o
RE: the burning continents

So maybe the survivalists aren't the loony tunes so many have pegged them to be.


 o
RE: the burning continents

I ,live in Victoria Australia. Due to our recnrt dreadful 14 year drought we will soon have a mega Giant desalination plant operating (which we all will have to pay for in taxes for decades to come)

The ironic thing about desalination is that it uses mega amounts of fossil fuels to run it.!!

Pam, how ironic indeed. Big water is the same as big oil, different name, same crap.

Desalination plants operating on solar are up and running allover the planet and have been for decades. It's ridiculous to waste precious fossil fuel for it.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Can't get rich unless you can recycle old technologies and up fossil fuel usage. Centralized systems means high power and profits for the few.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Quite so, and indeed displacement of populations from drying/warming will cause other areas to become if anything more centralized, control will be in ever fewer hands.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Apparently, Lily, we have nothing to worry about... nothing is happening, and humans didn't contribute to it. Everything is just peachy.

What? What about all that floating garbage, those pollution levels that keeps people indoors and bother others with health issues, those melting polar caps, genetically mutated sea creatures, and major performances by mother nature, you ask? Those are nothing... figments of your imagination... move along; there's nothing to see...


 o
RE: the burning continents

I am completely with terrene on the birth control issue -- too many people on the fragile planet, straining its resources.

If you think back to the anarchy and chaos that sprang from hurricane Katrina and its aftermath in 2005, and magnify that one hundred fold, just imagine what future disasters are bound to be in store for some of us in the future... It ought to have been a warning: we are not adequately prepared to handle any disaster on a small or a large scale.....


 o
RE: the burning continents

Eh, just stock up on ammo and dried beans.


 o
RE: the burning continents

If you think back to the anarchy and chaos that sprang from hurricane Katrina and its aftermath in 2005 ..."

Could you explain what you are talking about? The paragraph reminds me of Dave's recent thread "Neither confirmed or denied".

I don't think you mean Blackwater patrolling the disaster area.

What I have heard about the reality of the situation was similar to this:

Anarchists are used to any and all examples of social breakdown being labelled "anarchy." The "anarchy" in question is, of course, chaos rather than the kind of free society based on liberty and co-operation between equals anarchists seek. In this sense the reporting of events in New Orleans fits the same, sorry, pattern. When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans the media was awash with stories of "anarchy," particularly at the Superdome which was full of refugees.

However, the facts of the matter are coming out. The grisly scenes reported in the media had little basis in reality. While there were reports of 200 bodies in the Superdome, the real total was considerably less: six. Of those, four died of natural causes, one overdosed and another was an apparent suicide. A similar picture has emerged at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, where just four bodies have been recovered despite reports of heaps of dead piled inside the building. Of these, only one appeared to have been murdered. There were about 30,000 evacuees at the Dome and an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 at the Convention Center.

The evacuees did suffer terrifying and inhumane conditions, but the facts are the vast majority of reported atrocities committed by evacuees -- mass murders, rapes and beatings -- have turned out to be false, or at least unsupported by any evidence. The Orleans Parish District Attorney reported that authorities have only confirmed four murders in the entire city in the aftermath of Katrina -- a typical week in a city with over 200 homicides expected this year.

Four weeks after the storm, few of the widely reported atrocities have been backed with evidence. The media image of the impoverished, overwhelmingly Black, masses of flood victims resorting to utter depravity, randomly attacking each other, as well as the police trying to protect them and the rescue workers trying to save them was just that, an image. Most of the worst crimes reported at the time never happened --people firing at helicopters trying to save them; women, children and even babies raped with abandon; people murdered for food and water. That racism played a part in this sensational reporting goes without saying (an obvious example being the reports of white people miraculously finding food while blacks had simply looted it). That this racist reporting hindered relief efforts and cost lives is just as obvious.

Anarchists are not surprised at this development. Humans, we argue, are social creatures and have, in general, the ability to live with others in a decent way. Needless to say, living in an oppressive and exploitative society hollows out this social sense but it can never remove it totally. Anarchism is based on developing this social sense and creating the conditions and institutions in which it can grow and strengthen.

As such, the events in New Orleans also contain explains of genuine anarchy -- people organising themselves to meet their individual and collective needs, helping each other out. For example, people taking food and other essentials from shops for themselves and others is a practical example of anarchist ideas on mutual aid and distribution according to need. Faced with respecting private property or living, people rightly choose the latter. As such, the disaster shows how private property comes into conflict with human needs. One telling example of the stupidity of capitalism was seen when someone took a bus, filled it with people and drove them to safety. This hero was promptly arrested for theft.

Yet while the reports of murders, rapes and gang violence inside the stadium reported internationally have proven to be false, their legacy will remain. The false stories will be held up as yet more evidence of the brutality of humans (and, implicitly) the need for government to control such passions. The popular notion of "anarchy" as chaos will be promoted and used against anarchist ideas of social change.

cont'd at:
http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/anarchism/writers/anarcho/usa/HurricaneKatrinaracism.html

Bill McKibben just tweeted a link to his new article in the Rolling Stone. He said: "I think this is the most impt thing I've written in many years; I'd be grateful if people would spread it around."

Here is a link that might be useful: rolling stone


 o
RE: the burning continents

I don't know if we've really touched on the wider ramifications of global warming yet. We talk about the mass exodus of people from the unlivably hot parts into cooler areas. Who will feed, house and educate those people there. Who will give them jobs? There will be tens and hundreds of millions of them. The water supply in places like California is barely able to sustain the population already that already exists. If all this comes to pass and nothing can be done to stop or alleviate it, I believe we're basically talking about the extinction of all mammals, including homo sapiens (the sapiens part now appears very questionable).


 o
RE: the burning continents

Extinction of all mammals? Rather unlikely, even the extinction of humanity in the next few centuries is very unlikely.

Serious collapse is a reasonable possibility. Regarding the issue of large numbers of people shifting regions, if that happens in a short time frame then clearly societies will have to become militarized, and we see that happening in various places on the globe already. However, the frog in the pot factor applies here for societies with the most wealth - where people can afford to buffer the effects for a long way into the disrupted climate.


 o
RE: the burning continents

pnbrown, I sincerely hope you're right. From the reports I've read, many reputable scientists believe that the beginning of a doomsday scenario if we continue on our present course may be a matter of decades rather than hundreds of years.


 o
RE: the burning continents

But then you read something like this head scratcher...

Here is a link that might be useful: Generation Gap


 o
RE: the burning continents

The statement that only a pessimist would start a thread like this is perhaps linked to the results of that survey, duluth.

Though I don't consider myself a depressive, it is known that people who have non-crippling depression have a more realistic view of pretty much everything and are generally more capable of making decisions relating to crisis situations. IOW, a good dose of depression (otherwise known as realism) is a better fit for tough times than the normal mindset, which is overly optimistic.


 o
RE: the burning continents

  • Posted by bboy USDA 8 Sunset 5 WA (My Page) on
    Thu, Jul 19, 12 at 20:42

Depression is not realism, depression is a malfunction - and not a more successful state of functioning.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Well, I'm an optimistic cynic. And I do tend to concur with your view, Brown: "Serious collapse is a reasonable possibility. Regarding the issue of large numbers of people shifting regions, if that happens in a short time frame then clearly societies will have to become militarized, and we see that happening in various places on the globe already. However, the frog in the pot factor applies here for societies with the most wealth - where people can afford to buffer the effects for a long way into the disrupted climate."

However, I would add that "wealth" is a relative and subjective term, IMO. Wealth may not mean money or power over others, it may simply mean empowerment. What do you think?


 o
RE: the burning continents

I think it's happening much quicker than even the scientists thought. We don't have normal weather anymore. We've had a month of temps between 90-100 with no rain. Tonight it poured so hard you couldn't see the other side of the street. I can't remember a day with gentle rain. Those days rarely happen..just dramatic weather like floods, droughts, hurricanes, tornadoes.

As a 60's hippie , I was so optimistic that change was happening. We started Earth Day, we were flower people, loved the environment. It saddens me to think how far in the other direction we've gone. I was an idealist, I guess.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Well, that Bill Mckibben piece is depressing. The amount of carbon in the fossil fuel industry's proven reserves is 5 times greater than the amount which is calculated to cause an increase in global temperature of 2 degrees Celsius, and to avert global catatrosphe we're not supposed to go above 2 degrees C. Except that we're already experiencing dramatic changes in global climate at an increase of only 0.8 degrees C so far, so that 2 degrees may be too much.

And I very much doubt the industry and most all the rest of us on the planet (except apparently, for Germany), are going to refrain from extracting and burning whatever fossil fuels we can get our hands on. Which means we're f*cked, and we'll bring most of the rest of species on the planet down with us. How is that not totally depressing, even if you're not depressive?


 o
RE: the burning continents

B-boy, I direct you to a book that came out recently, name of which I forget, about how mentally normal leaders are not much good in crisis while mental abnormals - specifically depressives - rise to the occasion. Lincoln, Grant, Churchill, as examples were judged to be depressives.

Anyhoo, Elvis, in this case that I am referring to, yes, wealth means actual "empowerment", as in electric power to run AC and refrigerators and other means of coping with higher average temperatures.

Terrene, I think you can free yourself from the idea that Germans will refrain from burning fossil fuels to improve their conditions. They are burning them, and they will. Certainly the governments of germany and some other northern european countries have made the largest to-date investments in gathering solar and wind power, but they still are major users of fossil fuels. They have also shifted a larger chunk of their heavy industry to Asia than have the US and Canada.


 o
RE: the burning continents

PNB, Rome wasn't built in a day, transitioning to new technologies takes time, and why not burn fossil fuels moderately if it doesn't put the planet at risk? With near 50% of their energy coming from renewable sources and probably higher slated for the future, I would say Germany is doing pretty PDG (pretty darn good).


 o
RE: the burning continents

As this country shifts away from coal to cleaner fuels, the coal mines here are now exporting coal to China. I wonder what the German coal mines are doing.


 o
RE: the burning continents

David, I think Germany is keeping its options open...

Here is a link that might be useful: 2018 and counting?


 o
RE: the burning continents

Terrene, I think we are saying the same thing. Fossil fuels will be burnt. Wherever there is conservation elsewhere increased usage will soak up the difference. That is the reality of post-peak.


 o
RE: the burning continents

Thanks, duluthinbloomz4 - so pretty much the same thing - preening in the mirror about clean energy while selling the coal somewhere else


 o
RE: the burning continents

Individual self-interest (IOW, people simply being people) makes the burning of most of the remaining recoverable reserves of oil, gas, and coal a certainty. Which means ultimately an increase of 4-5 degrees Celsius is also a certainty. Right now we are experience the effects of about .5 degree warming.

The more I think about it the more it seems that the sequence of population being driven to the cooler wetter margins then to be disrupted by ocean rise is going to be impossible to manage in a civilized way. How best to prepare for chaos?


 o
RE: the burning continents

How best to prepare? I don't know if we really can. It may be an "extinction level event" - especially if it screws with the composition of the atmosphere to the extent of lowering O2 levels.

I'm glad I'm getting old and have no children.

The best I can do personally is hang in there as long as I find life enjoyable or at least tolerable. My main raison d'etre is gardening, the home, and family. There are always projects to do and new things to learn, at this time I'm thinking "dry land farming techniques and alternate crops". Nopales, tepary beans, and argyrosperma squash. Of course, if I go this route next year, it will rain constantly and be 71 degrees all summer.

Welcome to the "new normal".


 o
RE: the burning continents

This IS indeed the new normal. Thursday morning when I opened my kitchen door to let the dogs out it was 97..before noon. This morning it's 65..32 degrees lower. It's just nuts. I too am glad I'm getting old, but my kids and grand kids will be left to deal with what is so foreign as to be what was normal. I never thought it would happen so fast and be so noticeable and YET...the Flat-earthers still don't admit it's happening. Despite our 90=100 degree days for a month..unheard of and breaking records almost every say, our gardens are doing great. We planted early because we could with abnormally dry and hot winter and every thing was early and plentiful. But of course needing constant watering. Water we will be the next oil. I loved this cool damp weather so much I walked in the rain with no coat on savoring the cool from the incessant hot humid days that seemingly never ended..


 o
RE: the burning continents

Althea, I refer you to Anderson Cooper's book "Dispatches from the Edge." He was on the scene in New Orleans in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina. He reports honestly on the chaos of what he witnessed.


 o Post a Follow-Up

Please Note: Only registered members are able to post messages to this forum.

    If you are a member, please log in.

    If you aren't yet a member, join now!


Return to the Hot Topics Forum

Information about Posting

  • You must be logged in to post a message. Once you are logged in, a posting window will appear at the bottom of the messages. If you are not a member, please register for an account.
  • Please review our Rules of Play before posting.
  • Posting is a two-step process. Once you have composed your message, you will be taken to the preview page. You will then have a chance to review your post, make changes and upload photos.
  • After posting your message, you may need to refresh the forum page in order to see it.
  • Before posting copyrighted material, please read about Copyright and Fair Use.
  • We have a strict no-advertising policy!
  • If you would like to practice posting or uploading photos, please visit our Test forum.
  • If you need assistance, please Contact Us and we will be happy to help.


Learn more about in-text links on this page here